What Do Fulfillment Centers Do?

What Do Fulfillment Centers Do?

What steps would a product go through from the manufacturer to the consumer? During the process, fulfillment centers lie in a crucial place. Some may ask the question: What do fulfillment centers do?

Hold on. This article will clarify the secret inner workings of fulfillment centers.

Key Takeaways

  • Fulfillment centers manage inventory, process orders, pick and pack items, handle shipping logistics, and manage returns.
  • They are equipped with warehousing space, advanced inventory systems, picking and packing equipment, and dedicated shipping and receiving areas.
  • Types of fulfillment centers include retail, wholesale, and third-party fulfillment centers.
  • Quality control is crucial, involving pre-shipment inspections, barcode scanning, and random audits.
  • ERP systems and e-commerce integration streamline operations and improve customer experiences.
  • Sustainability efforts in fulfillment centers focus on energy management, waste reduction, and green building design.
  • Fulfillment centers play a key role in cross-border e-commerce, managing international shipments, ensuring regulatory compliance, and providing a seamless customer experience.
  • Fulfillment centers differ from warehouses in their focus on order fulfillment and rapid inventory turnover.

What is a fulfillment center?

A fulfillment center acts as an active space. Here, people handle stocks and requests, as well as ready and send out shipments.

The primary functions of a fulfillment center include:

Inventory Management: Checking how much stock is available and ensuring products are ready for use.

Order Processing: Verifying and accepting incoming customer orders that can arrive through different paths like online venues, retail outlets, or selling directly.

Pick and Pack: Finding the ordered items and getting them ready to send out, possibly needing to put together, box up, and mark packages.

Shipping and Logistics: Working with carriers to move items toward their last places, utilizing sophisticated logistics software for route planning and time management.

Returns Management: Managing customer returns and exchanges, checking items, keeping stocks, or handling refund processes.

A fulfillment center

Key components of a fulfillment center

Warehousing Space: Adequate storage areas for raw materials, finished goods, and packaging materials.

Inventory Systems: Advanced software and hardware for tracking inventory levels and movement.

Picking and Packing Equipment: This includes conveyors, automated systems, and other tools that assist in making the procedure for order preparation more productive.

Shipping and Receiving Areas: Dedicated spaces for the arrival and dispatch of goods.

Security Measures: Systems to protect inventory and ensure the safety of personnel and property.

Staff: People with expertise in their roles and managers supervise work and guarantee things are functioning effectively.

Types of fulfillment centers

Retail fulfillment centers are run by retailers to handle inventory and complete orders of their items.

Wholesale fulfillment centers focused on supporting businesses that deal in bulk product sales to others, not targeting individual customers.

Third-party fulfillment centers provide fulfillment services for many clients, usually under a contract. They can manage all aspects of order fulfillment for businesses that don’t possess their facilities.

Fulfillment center operations


A fulfillment center is like a bee hive, where many different workers make it thrive.

1. Warehouse Managers: They oversee the entire operation, ensuring efficiency and adherence to safety protocols.

2. Inventory Specialists: Manage stock levels, track inventory, and ensure data accuracy.

3. Pickers and packers: Pickers are responsible for locating and retrieving items from storage. Packers prepare items for shipping, ensuring they are correctly packaged and labeled.

4. Shippers: Coordinate with carriers to dispatch packages and manage logistics.

5. Customer Service Representatives: Address customer inquiries and resolve issues related to orders and deliveries.

Quality control

In the fulfillment center, quality control begins with pre-shipment inspections to confirm that the goods meet quality standards. People carefully handle inventory to avoid any differences and keep a record of where products are going. Orders get verified twice for precision. Barcode scanning and automated systems reduce human error during the pick and pack.

Teams for quality control carry out random audits and depend on customer feedback to locate and correct issues. The staff also undergoes regular training to follow quality standards and procedures. Using high-level technologies such as AI and robotics adds better accuracy plus speediness to the checking process for quality control.

ERP systems and e-commerce integration

For fulfillment centers, the use of ERP systems and e-commerce integration can simplify the end-to-end order-to-delivery pathway.

Systems of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP systems) are extensive software platforms. They combine a range of business processes such as inventory management, order processing, financials, and human resources into one system. They offer a single view of all actions in the enterprise for real-time data access and decision-making.

ERP systems keep inventory levels accurate and manage orders in fulfillment centers. They make sure that the data related to stock is correct and recent, which aids in preventing situations of no stock or too much stock.

ERPs also assist with automating numerous administrative works, lessening possible human mistakes while enhancing operational effectiveness.

Integration of e-commerce with a direct connection between the ERP system and online sales platforms. This instant link permits the capturing and processing of orders in real-time, refreshing stock levels as soon as a purchase occurs.

It makes the exchange of information easier between online shopfronts and back-end operations, guaranteeing that customer requests are dealt with fast and precisely.

Moreover, this merging allows for tailored customer experiences. When e-commerce platforms share their customer data with the business, it becomes possible to personalize marketing tactics and enhance service.

Similarly, this combination enables tracking of customer preferences and actions that can help in business plans and inventory choices.

Sustainability for fulfillment centers

With increased consciousness of sustainability, fulfillment centers are making many efforts in this direction.

Energy Management: Implementing energy-efficient lighting, heating, and cooling systems to reduce energy consumption.

Renewable Energy Sources: Utilizing solar panels or wind turbines to generate clean energy on-site.

Waste Reduction: Minimizing waste generation through efficient packaging and recycling programs.

Sustainable Transportation: Adjusting shipping paths to save on fuel and emissions, and studying electric or other fuel-based vehicles for logistics.

Water Conservation: Implementing water-saving technologies and practices within the facility.

Green Building Design: Establishing fulfillment centers using green materials and designs that encourage energy efficiency.

A fulfillment center with eco-friendly design

Fulfillment centers in cross-border e-commerce

Fulfillment centers facilitate the seamless movement of goods across international borders.

Managing International Shipments

E-commerce that goes beyond borders needs fulfillment centers to deal with international shipping rules, customs clearance processes, and changes in duties for import or export activities. These places need strong systems for managing and monitoring the movement of shipments across various nations, ensuring they reach on time and meet the rules of each place where they pass through.

Customer Experience

In cross-border e-commerce, it is important to have a positive customer experience. For this reason, fulfillment centers must offer dependable delivery timeframes and transparent communication about shipping costs as well as duties and taxes involved in the process. They may also need to deal with returns or exchanges which can become more complicated across borders.

Customs and Regulatory Compliance

A main duty for fulfillment centers in cross-border e-commerce is making sure all shipments follow customs rules. This includes correct paperwork, categorizing tariffs, and paying necessary duties and taxes. These centers usually team up with customs brokers and freight forwarders to handle these actions.

Fulfillment Center vs. Warehouse

The ideas of “fulfillment center” and “warehouse” are similar, but they have their unique ways of operating with different purposes and functions.

Purpose and function

Both fulfillment centers and warehouses serve as storage facilities for goods. However, their purposes diverge in the context of supply chain operations.

Warehouses: In old times, warehouses were mainly used to keep goods for a long period. They are made for holding inventory until it is required in the process of making or selling things. The main job is to store and safeguard the goods.

Fulfillment Centers: These are mainly concerned with handling and delivering orders in a well-organized manner. They have been created to receive, temporarily store, select items from inventory, package them up nicely, and send out goods swiftly either to customers directly or to retailers.

Inventory management strategy

The strategies for inventory management differ based on the operational goals of each facility:

Warehouses: The inventory management in warehouses usually concentrates on storing for a long period, rotating stock, and ensuring consistent supply for production or distribution.

Fulfillment centers: The inventory strategies are designed for fast rotation and meeting customer requests. The emphasis is on making stock amounts best for easy and swift availability.

Distribution and transportation

Warehouses: The goods that are stored in warehouses can remain there for a long time before they get transported together, usually in large quantities, to other warehouses or retail shops and factories.

Fulfillment Centers: These centers are a crucial part of the distribution network, frequently sending individual orders straight to end customers or regional distribution hubs.

Last words

In the future, fulfillment centers will become even more important for businesses. The role of fulfillment centers is crucial as e-commerce continues to grow. They could even influence how we purchase, sell, and perceive fulfillment services worldwide.


What is the role of a fulfillment center?

A fulfillment center is where the work to make orders complete gets organized for businesses. It functions like a middle station that gets products, stores them, chooses them for customers’ orders, packs and sends them out. The main tasks are managing inventory, processing orders, controlling quality, and coordinating logistics. They can also manage returns and exchanges.

Is a fulfillment center temporary or long-term?

Typically, a fulfillment center is an operational place for long-term use. They are situated at locations that maximize distribution networks, shorten shipping durations, and handle inventory management efficiently over the long term. It’s different from short-term storage because it’s not set up to store goods temporarily but to provide continuous business support.

What are examples of fulfillment centers?

There are many examples of fulfillment centers. Amazon Fulfillment Centers, Shopify Fulfillment Network, FedEx 3PL fulfillment, and CFC fulfillment are all instances of fulfillment centers.

What does Amazon fulfillment center do?

Amazon fulfillment centers are large buildings equipped with modern technology. Their function is receiving goods from sellers and storing them until they are sold. These centers also handle the packing and shipping of products to customers who place orders online.

In these centers, they choose, pack, and send products straight to clients or other places on Amazon. They also handle returns and control inventory with advanced systems that track sales information and estimate the need for stock goods to make it efficient.